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International Experience


Public hearings are a key element of pacts in Argentina. Poder Cuidadano, along with several municipal authorities, organises public hearings to increase credibility and prevent corruption in public procurement. They provide a platform for the responsible authority to convene with citizens, businesses, experts and representatives of the opposition and present the details of the particular project and the procurement provisions. At the hearings, participants can make objections and suggestions which are taken into account and incorporated into the process where appropriate. More information on Argentina’s experience in fighting corruption can be found on the chapter’s website. To access the website please click here [Spanish].


The chapter and Authority discuss the corruption risks that may arise during a contract process with bidders beforehand. This technique is suggested to secure the cooperation of all participants from an ethical point of view. Measures to prevent the identified risks are agreed upon between all parties and incorporated into the pact document, to be signed between the bidders and the authority, as well as in an ‚ÄėEthics Declaration‚Äô adopted by the relevant public officials involved.¬†Transparencia por Colombia introduced pacts in over 60 major procurement processes, in different sectors. More detailed information on the Colombian experience can be found in the paper, ‚ÄúThe Experience of the Systematic Implementation of integrity pacts for Public Contracting in Colombia‚ÄĚ available here.

Colombia built on their experience with pacts and evolved to a new tool -Anti-Corruption Agreements- for specific industry sectors. More information on the latter form can be found here. More general information is available on Transparencia por Colombia’s website. To access the website, please click here [Spanish].


Sch√∂nefeld International Airport, a project worth ‚ā¨2.4 billion, provides a very high profile use of a pact.¬†In an effort to reduce the risk of corruption, TI Germany was approached by the company in charge of the project (Flughafen Berlin-Sch√∂nefeld GmbH) and together they established a pact which suited the German legal context. The adapted pact model was applied to all project contracts, starting at the early stages of project design and implementation. The selection of a suitable monitor was crucial. The monitoring has included contract execution and will be in place until the airport is officially opened.

A case study of the application of the pact in the Schönefeld project can be found as an annex within the integrity pacts in the Water Sector Manual or here. Additionally, more general information on Germany’s experience with the pact can be found on the chapter’s website. To access the website, please click here [German].


TI India‚Äôs advocacy efforts resulted in the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) issuing Directive 008/CRD/013, which refers to the implementation of integrity pacts as ‚Äėstandard operating procedure‚Äô in procurement contracts of any major government department. To date, over 39 Public Sector Undertakings (PSU), or state-owned companies, have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with TI India and apply the integrity pact accordingly. More detailed information regarding the use of pacts in India can be found on the chapter‚Äôs website. To access the website, please click¬†here.


In Indonesia, the pact has been adapted and applied to local government contracts in up to 20 districts. As the main beneficiaries, the general public holds the lead role in monitoring the implementation of integrity pacts to ensure the quality of the output.

For more information on the Indonesian experience, please refer to the Curbing Corruption in Public Procurement Handbook, or click here. TI Indonesia’s website also provides more general information on anti-corruption efforts in procurement. To access the website, please click here [Bahasa].


In Italy, the pact has been introduced mainly at municipal level. Milan City Council was the first authority to adopt the integrity pact in 2002. In 2009 the Italian Association of Municipalities, the Minister of Public Administration and TI Italy have signed a protocol promoting the use of pacts by municipal administrations. In Italy the introduction of the pacts is preceded by a training to all managers and employees engaged in their application on best public procurement practices to prevent corruption risks and the role the integrity pact. The Italian pact model does not provide for Independent External Monitoring, instead it relies on the control mechanisms of the Court of Auditors. More general information on TI Italy’s work on procurement and the use of integrity pacts can be found on the chapter’s website. To access the website, please click Рhere [Italian].


In 2005, TI Latvia and the Latvian Ministry of Culture agreed to apply an integrity pact to the contracts of three major construction projects of a national library, a concert hall, and a contemporary art museum. TI Latvia was appointed as an independent external monitor to guarantee transparency and provides public reports on the process. A summary of the integrity pact’s implementation process can be found here. More general information on the chapter’s related work can be found on their website. To access the website, please click here.


Transparencia Mexicana has implemented pacts in over 100 contracts, worth approximately US $30 billion in total. The chapter‚Äôs has emphasised the use of independent monitors, known as a ‚Äúsocial witness‚ÄĚ. In 2004, the Public Administration Authority issued a decree whereby the role of social witnesses has become mandatory for national level contracts above a certain threshold.¬†A case study on the implementation of pacts in Mexico is included as an annex in the integrity pacts in the Water Sector Manual, or can be downloaded here. More general information on Transparencia Mexicana‚Äôs efforts to fight corruption can be found on the chapter‚Äôs website. To access the website, please click here [Spanish].

South Korea:

The Korean pact model emphases the protection of whistleblowers and the creation of an ombudsman system to carry out independent external monitoring. The chapter conducted a survey on integrity pacts in the Public Sector in 2003. The findings to this survey and the Korean experience can be accessed in English here. Additionally, more information on South Korea’s experience in pact implementation can be found here.


TI Pakistan introduced integrity pacts in 2000, in the Greater Karachi Water Supply project (K-III) implemented under the responsibility of the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB). TI Pakistan monitored the bidding process for the design and supervision of the project and recommended a series of procedures that were maintained for the remaining contracts of the project, which was completed ahead of schedule at a total cost US$10 million less than initially estimated. In 2004, the Government of Pakistan enacted the Public Procurement Rules; it is now mandatory for bidders to sign a pact for any contracting process with a value above a given threshold. The new legislation does not provide for the participation of an independent monitor.

For more information on Pakistan’s experience with pact implementation in the Greater Karachi K-III project, please click here. An additional example of pacts in the Steel industry can also be accessed here. More general information of Pakistan’s fight against corruption on public procurement can be found on the chapter’s website. To access the website, please click here.

United Kingdom:

Integrity pacts have also been adapted and implemented with particular focus on the defence sector. TI UK offers stakeholders of the sector an introduction to integrity pacts; templates and guidance, documents for practical implementation of the tool, the role of the Independent Monitor and an overview of experience to date with defence integrity pacts as well as an assessment of how the tool assists in the fight against corruption. More detailed information on the use of defence integrity pacts can be found on the chapter’s website. To access the website, please click here. 

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